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2020-01-08 01:49   来源:  www.papawere.com   评论:0 点击:


1942年,在晋察冀抗日根据地,聂荣臻司令员曾签发过一道独特的《树叶训令》,命令全区所有部队,将村庄周围15里以内的树叶,全部让给老百姓,部队到远离村庄的无人区采摘树叶充饥。  1942年春,抗日战争进入了最艰难的时期。日军为了把华北变为其发动“大东亚圣战”的供给基地,自1941年秋季开始,先后出动7万兵力,对根据地进行了残酷的“扫荡”。不幸的是,当时又发生了旱灾,致使冀中平原和整个晋察冀抗日根据地赤地千里,边区军民收成锐减,不仅老百姓没有粮吃,军队自己的给养也成问题。为了度过春荒,我军战士们每天出去采树叶,“一棵大树上的树叶够一个排的人吃上一天”。  当时,唐县和家庄村老百姓有900多人,部队200多人,加起来1000多人,老百姓和驻军都以采树叶为食。聂荣臻司令员得到消息后,为了不影响军民关系,便下了禁止部队采摘村庄附近树叶的训令。后来聂荣臻曾在回忆录里对此记述道:“1942年春天,青黄不接,群众和部队都发生了粮荒,入春后,老百姓就把树叶当成了主要粮食。我们部队有的伙食单位,请示能不能采集树叶,我曾要求军区政治部为此发了训令,部队所有伙食单位都不能在村庄附近采摘杨树叶、榆树叶,要把它留给群众吃。宁可饿着肚子,也不与民争食。”据八路军老战士赵福晨回忆,1942年他在唐县和家庄村参军,那时八路军一天只吃两顿饭,每顿饭是三个二三两重的树叶饼,吃不饱就多喝点野菜汤。另据八路军老战士田顺心回忆,当年部队每天不仅要跑十几里的山路去摘树叶,而且山上的野果还不能摘,也留给老百姓。  这个关于“禁止采摘树叶”的训令以布告的形式贴到了村庄周围。布告贴出后,村民发现和他们一起摘树叶子的八路军指战员不见了,很是感动。老百姓纷纷表示,八路军是我们的子弟兵,大家应该一起共渡难关。更有一些群众找到军区和边区政府,见到了聂荣臻,恳切地希望他收回训令。军区和边区政府亲切接待了来访群众,但训令不仅没有被收回,而且还传达到了晋察冀军区的其他部队贯彻落实。  为了共渡难关,晋察冀军区的机关、部队在严格执行训令的同时,制定了节约粮食计划,所有脱产人员除伤病员外每人每天要节约一至二两粮食。仅1942年,各部队就节约出14万斤粮食,这批节省下来的粮食用于救济受灾的老百姓。机关和部队还迅速动员起来,投入轰轰烈烈的大生产运动,军民团结一心,终于度过了这段最困难的时期。  (摘自2019年12月12日《人民政协报》)

In 1942, in the Jin-Cha-Ji anti-Japanese base area, Commander Nie Rongzhen issued a unique "leaf training order ", ordered all the troops in the region to give up all the leaves around the village within 15 miles to the common people, troops to the village away from the no-man's land to pick leaves to appease hunger. In the spring of 1942, the War of Resistance against Japan entered the most difficult period. In order to turn North China into its supply base for launching the "Great East Asian Jihad ", the Japanese army has dispatched 70,000 troops to carry out a brutal" sweep "of the base area since the autumn of 1941. Unfortunately, another drought occurred at that time, resulting in the Jizhong Plain and the entire Jin-Kaji anti-Japanese base area thousands of miles, the border areas of the military and civilian harvest has been drastically reduced, not only the common people do not have food to eat, the army's own support has become a problem. In order to get through the spring famine, our soldiers go out every day to pick leaves," a big tree leaves enough for a row of people to eat a day." At that time, there were more than 900 people in Tangxian County and Jiazhuang Village, and more than 200 troops, adding up to more than 1,000 people. After receiving the news, Commander Nie Rongzhen, in order not to affect the military-civilian relations, the troops were banned from picking leaves near the village. "In the spring of 1942, the crowd and the army had a grain shortage, and after spring, the people took the leaves as their main grain," Nie wrote in his memoirs. I have asked the political department of the military region to issue an order for some of the feeding units of our troops to ask if they can collect the leaves. All the feeding units of the troops cannot pick the poplar leaves and elm leaves near the village. Better starve than eat with the people. Zhao Fuchen, an old soldier of the eighth Route Army, recalled that in 1942 he joined the army in Tangxian County and Jiazhuang Village, when the eighth Route Army ate only two meals a day, each meal was three two-two-fold leaf cakes, and if he was not full, he drank more wild vegetable soup. According to veteran Eighth Route Army soldier Tian Shunxin recalled that the troops not only ran a dozen miles a day to pick leaves on the mountain road, but also the wild fruit on the mountain cannot be picked, but also left to the common people. The ban on picking leaves was posted around the village in the form of a notice. After the notice was posted, the villagers were moved to find that the 8th Route Army soldiers who had picked the leaves with them had disappeared. People have said that the Eighth Route Army is our soldiers, we should work together to tide over the difficulties. Some people found the military region and the border region government, saw Nie Rongzhen, earnestly hoped that he withdraws the training order. The military region and the border region government graciously received the visitors, but the order was not only not taken back, but also conveyed to the other troops of the Jin-Cha-Ji military region to carry it out. In order to tide over the difficulties together, the organs and troops of the Jin-Cha-Ji military region, while strictly enforcing the training order, formulated a grain-saving plan, in which all released workers save one or two grains per day except for the sick and wounded. In 1942 alone, troops saved 140,000 catties of grain, which was used to help the affected people. The organs and troops also quickly mobilized, put into the vigorous mass production movement, the army and the people united as one, finally passed this most difficult period. ( From December 12,2019, the CPPCC)